The Possible Cardio-Protective Effects of Ethanolic Artichoke Extract against 5- Fluorouracil Induced Cardiac Toxicity in RatsDesign, Synthesis and Kinetic Study of Coumarin-Based Mutual Prodrug of 5-Fluorouracil and Dichloroacetic acidEstimation of Oxidative Stress and Some Trace Elements in Iraqi Men Patients with Type 2 Diabetes MellitusDetection of Serum Ferritin in Women with Breast Cancer Effect of Metformin Treatment on some Blood Biomarkers in Women with Endometriosis.Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Hormonal AlterationThe Spectrophotometric Determination of Olanzapine via Coupling with Diazotized p-NitroanilineTrend of Antibiotics Usage in the Intensive Care Unit in the Medical City in BaghdadFormulation and Evaluation of Nystatin Microparticles as a Sustained Release SystemFormulation and Evaluation of Ezetimibe Nanoparticles Evaluation of Poisoning Cases in the Poisoning Consultation Center and Forensic Medicine Institute within Baghdad areaPotentiometric Transducers for the Selective Recognition of Risperidone Based on Molecularly Imprinted PolymerPhytochemical Study of Steroidal Sapogenin “Tigogenin” Present in the Leaves of Agave americana Cultivated in IraqThe Effect of L-Carnitine as an Adjuvant Supplement on Lipid Profile in Iraqi Diabetic PatientsPreparation and Characterization of Montelukast Sodium ( SMLT ) as a Dual Sustained Release Buccal StripsMeasurement of Serum Trace Elements (Zinc, Copper, Magnesium and Iron) Concentrations in Pediatric Patients with Otitis MediaFormulation and Evaluation of Domperidone Nanoemulsions for Oral RoutPhytochemical and Pharmacological Study of Valepotriates in Valeriana officinalis L. F.Valerianeceae Cultivated in IraqStudy the Influence of Captopril on Bone Metabolism in Elderly Hypertensive WomenHypolipidemic Effect of Caffeic Acid Isolated From Arctium Lappa Cultivated In Iraq, in Hyperlipidemic Rat ModelSpectrophotometric Determination of Clonazepam in Pure and Dosage forms using Charge Transfer ReactionPreparation, Characterization and Prophylactic Study of New Microsphere Containing Doxycycline against Diseases of ShrimpIsolation and Characterization of Iridoid Glycoside (Gardenoside) Present in the Leaves of Gardenia jasminoides J.Ellis Cultivated in IraqSynthesis of some Novel Nitrogenous Heterocyclic Compounds with Expected Biological Activity as Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Agents.Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of bis Heterocyclic Derivatives of 1,3,4-thiadiazolePhytochemical Investigation and Antioxidant Activity of Iraqi Tribulus terrestrisDesign, Synthesis, Characterization and Preliminary Anticancer Study for Methotrexate Silibinin ConjugatesDesign, Synthesis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Evaluation of New Derivatives of CephalexinPreparation and Evaluation of Cefixime NanocrystalsEvaluation of the Clinical use of Metformin or Pioglitazone in Combination with Meloxicam in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis; using Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis outcome ScoreIsolation and Characterization of Triterpenoid Saponin Hederacoside C. Present in the Leaves of Hedera helix L. Cultivated in IraqSynthesis of New β-adrenoceptor Blocking Agent Including 1,3,4 Thiadiazole with Expected Adrenoceptor Blocking ActivityLipid Profile and Fasting Blood Sugar Analysis in Patients with CholelithiasisAssociation of Oxidative Stress Markers with CholelithiasisPreparation and Evaluation of Meloxicam Microsponges as Transdermal Delivery SystemSynthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Evaluation of New Ceftriaxone DerivativesEvaluation of Protective Effect of Different Doses of Terminalia arjuna Bark Ethanolic Extract on Cisplatin Induced Oxidative Nephrotoxicity in RatsQuality of Life of Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Al- Hilla City-IraqSynthesis and Antimicrobial Study of Possible Mutual Prodrugs of Amoxicillin and Metronidazole by Direct and Indirect Coupling through SpacerEvaluation of Rosuvastatin Effect as Adjuvant Therapy to Methotrexate on Lipid Profile and the Possibility of its Cardioprotective Effect in Iraqi Patients with Active Rheumatoid ArthritisMeasurement of some Biochemical Values in Hemodialysis Patients in BaghdadMeasurement of some Biochemical Values in Hemodialysis Patients in BaghdadPreparation and in-Vitro Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Clotrimazole Vaginal HydrogelPhytochemical Investigation of Alkaloids in the Iraqi Echinops heterophyllus (Compositae)Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of New 6 and7 Substituted Derivatives of CoumarinPreparation, Characterization, and in - vivo Evaluation of Daptomycin Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) MicrospheresFormulation and Evaluation of Flurbiprofen Oral FilmBioequivalence and Pharmacokinetics of Two Formulations of Amlodipine Tablets in Healthy SubjectsDetection of Helicobacter Pylori IgG and IgA , Serum Biomarkers CA19-9 and CEA in Patients with Gastrointestinal DiseasesGuggulusome - A Novel Vesicular Carriers for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery

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Volume:24 Issue2:-2015

The Possible Cardio-Protective Effects of Ethanolic Artichoke Extract against 5- Fluorouracil Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Rats
Intesar T. Numan, Maha N. Hamad, Ammar A. Fadhil and Safa M. Najim
Pages:1-5d
Abstract:

Cardiac toxicity can occur during the therapy with several cytotoxic drugs, including 5- Fluorouracil (5- FU). It is an antimetabolite that acts during the S phase of the cell cycle and is activated by thymidine phosphorylase into fluorodeoxyuridylate (5 fluoro 2'deoxyuridine 5'monophosphate, 5-FdUMP) that inhibits thymidylate synthase, thus preventing DNA synthesis that leads to imbalanced cell growth and ultimately cell death. It is still a widely used anticancer drug, since 1957. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible cardio-protective effects of ethanolic artichoke extract (Cynara scolymus L.) against 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) induced cardio-toxicity in rats by evaluating serum levels of Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase enzymes. Methods: Twenty -four female albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups each group with 6 rats. Group I: (negative control) received oral daily dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (2 ml/kg /day) for 10 successive days. Group II: (positive control) received oral daily dose of DMSO (2 ml/kg /day) for 10 successive days and subsequently administered single dose of 5-FU (150 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection on 8th day in association with DMSO. Groups III: received oral daily dose of ethanolic artichoke extract (200 mg/kg/day) for 10 successive days. Groups IV: received oral daily dose of ethanolic artichoke extract (200 mg/kg/day) for 10 successive days with subsequently administered single intraperitoneal dose of 5-FU (150 mg/kg) on 8th day in association with ethanolic extract. Results: Treatment of ethanolic artichoke extract prior 5-FU intoxication significantly attenuate the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) enzymes activities caused by 5-FU-induced cardio-toxicity in rats. Conclusions: Results of the present finding suggest that the ethanolic artichoke extract may be an effective modulator in mitigating 5-FU induced cardiac toxicity in rats.

Keywords: Ethanolic artichoke extract, 5-Fluorouracil, Cardio-protection, AST, ALT and CK.

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Design, Synthesis and Kinetic Study of Coumarin-Based Mutual Prodrug of 5-Fluorouracil and Dichloroacetic acid
Yasser F. Mustafa and Nohad A. Al-Omari
Pages:6-16
Abstract:

On the basis of known coumarin-based prodrug system, a novel coumarin-based mutual prodrug of 5-fluorouracil and dichloroacetic acid was designed, synthesized and evaluated as a promising oral chemotherapeutic agent basing on in vitro stability study in HCl buffer (pH 1.2) and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), as well as in vitro release study in human serum. The chemical structure of prodrug was confirmed by analyzing its FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS-ESI spectra. The results of in vitro kinetic study indicated that the prodrug was significantly stable in HCl and in phosphate buffers, and was hydrolyzed in human serum followed pseudo first order kinetics.

Keywords: Coumarin-based prodrug, 5-fluorouracil, Dichloroacetate, kinetics.

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Estimation of Oxidative Stress and Some Trace Elements in Iraqi Men Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Abdulrahman R. Mahmood
Pages:17-22
Abstract:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disorder that is associated with the imbalance of trace elements which are involved in many functions especially enzyme activities. Changes in the levels of serum elements probably can create some complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Previous experimental and clinical studies report that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of (T2DM). However, the exact mechanism of oxidative stress could contribute to and accelerate the development of (T2DM). The aim of this study contained the following sections: firstly, to determine some biochemical parameters in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) like lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Secondly, to determine serum and urine levels of zinc as trace element and serum level of iron, then to compare those parameters with that for age matched healthy individuals. The study performed on 45 Iraqi men, who attended Baghdad Teaching Hospital. They were grouped into to 2 groups based on fasting serum glucose (FSG), and (HbA1c) value first group was included 20 healthful persons with A1c <6.4% as control non diabetic group, second group was included 25 patients with A1c>6.4% as T2DM. Outcomes of this study demonstrated a clear increase in T2DM in fasting serum glucose, ( HbA1c), MDA values, urine concentration of zinc , and serum level of iron compare to control.T2DM shows a significant reduction in both TAC and serum level of zinc ,if compared with control group .

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Trace elements, Lipid peroxidation.

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Detection of Serum Ferritin in Women with Breast Cancer
Eman S. Nassir
Pages:23-27
Abstract:

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in females. In Iraq there are noticeable elevation in incidence rates and prevalence of advanced stages of breast cancer. Ferritin is intracellular iron storage protein abundant in circulation and its main application in differential diagnosis of anemia. The level of serum ferritin was found raised in various cancers including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess whether the serum ferritin concentration would be altered in Iraqi women with breast cancer and it could be related to progression of disease. Sixty eight females participated in this study. The mean age of these females was 53.25± 9.52 .The level of serum ferritin was measured in 24 Iraqi women of early stage of breast cancer (stage I and II) and 24 Iraqi women of advanced stage (III and IV). These levels were compared with 20 healthy females as controls. Serum ferritin was estimated by using enzyme linked immune sorbent assay method. This serum ferritin was found to be raised in all breast cancer patients (p<0.05) as compared to controls. The rise in ferritin level was significant in advanced stage (p<0.05) as compared to early stage. Thus the estimation of ferritin may aid in diagnosis, assessment of severity and monitoring of Iraqi women with breast cancer.

Key words: - Ferritin, Breast cancer, Iraq.

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Effect of Metformin Treatment on some Blood Biomarkers in Women with Endometriosis.
Noor A.Omer , Muhammad A.Taher and Henan Dh Skheel Aljebory
Pages:28-36
Abstract:

Endometriosis is a common women health disorder that occurs when Endometrial-like tissue grows outside the uterus. This may lead to irregular bleeding , pelvic pain, infertility and other complications. Metformin, because of its activity to improve insulin sensitivity, it is used for the treatment of diabetes; it also has a modulatory effect on ovarian steroid production and has anti-inflammatory properties, all may suggest its possible effect in treatment of endometriosis. This study was planned to determine the effect of metformin on serum levels of interleukin- eight(IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF -?) and estradiol (E2) production , and related symptomatic changes that accompany with endometriosis (pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and menorrheaga) after three months of study. Blood samples were obtained from those taking metformin and measure the serum levels of (IL-8) , TNF -? and (E2) were measured before and after three months of taking a metformin .Metformin therapy resulted in a significant reduction in the clinical symptoms of endometriosis (pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea) and insignificant changes in menorrhagia. Metformin therapy resulted in a significant reduction in the serum levels of IL-8, TNF- ? while insignificant reduction in estradiol E 2 in the study group after 3 months of treatment .In conclusion the results of this study, demonstrated that metformin may be a well-tolerated treatment for endometriosis that relieved pain and reduces menstrual disorders and serum levels of the inflammatory markers (IL-8 and TNF-?) are decreased in study group treated with metformin after 3 months due to its anti- inflammatory effects.

Keywords: Endometriosis, Metformin, TNF - a ,IL-8, E 2.

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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Hormonal Alteration
Sura A.Abdul Sattar ,Amer H.Abdulla and Aufaira Sh. Nsaif
Pages:37-41
Abstract:

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus is known as carbohydrate intolerance first detected during pregnancy. Pregnancy is periods of intense hormonal changes. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible relation between the changes in serum hormones such as Luteinizing hormone (LH) , follicle stimulating hormone(FSH), Progesterone, and Prolactin with gestational diabetes mellitus. Thirty patients with gestational diabetes mellitus aged (22 -40) year attending the national center for treatment and research of diabetes/ AL-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad and 29 controls aged (20-39) year were participated. Hormonal tests including, FSH, LH, Progesterone, and Prolactin were detected by using Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA) kits. The demographic characteristics of gestational diabetes mellitus indicated that the most commonly affected age at (20-29) year (50%) ,60% of patients had Body Mass Index(BMI) at ≥ 30kg/m2+, 76.6% of patients at first trimester of pregnancy, 23.3% had previous abortion,60% at the first pregnancy ,and 46.6% of patients had urine protein with one plus. A highly significant increase (p≤0.001) in Fasting serum glucose(FSG), LH, FSH, progesterone, and prolactin were observed in sera of gestational diabetes mellitus patients in comparison to that of control pregnancy group. A non-significant correlation of FSG with age, BMI, LH, FSH, and progesterone were demonstrated. While a significant positive correlation of FBS with prolactin was found. It is conclude that higher prolactin level in pregnancy possibly played a role in gestational diabetes mellitus partly by impairing the functions of insulin, and result in hyperglycemia.

Keyword: Gestational diabetes, FSH, LH, Progesterone, Prolactin.

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The Spectrophotometric Determination of Olanzapine via Coupling with Diazotized p-Nitroaniline
Sahar R. Fadhel*,1, Najwa I. Abdulla and Intidhar D. Sulaiman
Pages:42-49
Abstract:

A new spectrophotometric method has been developed for the assay of olanzapine (OLN.) in pure and dosage forms. The method is based on the diazocoupling of (OLN.) with diazotized p-nitroaniline in alkaline medium to form a stable brown colored water-soluble azo dye with a maximum absorption at 405 nm. The variables that affect the completion of reaction have been carefully optimized. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of (0.5-45.0 μg.mL-1) with a molar absorptivity of 1.5777×104 L.mol-1.cm-1. The limit of detection was 0.3148 μg.mL-1 and Sandell’s sensitivity value was 0.0198 μg.cm-2. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the determination of olanzapine in tablet pharmaceutical preparations.

Keywords: Spectrophotometry, Olanzapine, Diazotization, p-nitroaniline, tablet dosage form.

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Trend of Antibiotics Usage in the Intensive Care Unit in the Medical City in Baghdad
Zeena M. Al-Nema
Pages:50-58
Abstract:

High frequencies of multidrug resistant organisms were observed worldwide in intensive care units which is a warning as to use the only few effective antimicrobials wisely to reduce selective pressure on sensitive strains. The aim of the current study is to assess the compliance of the currently followed antibiotic prescribing pattern in the intensive care unit in an Iraqi hospital with the international guidelines.A cross-sectional study was done in the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Surgical Specialties Hospital, Medical City in Bagdad from the 30th of November 2011 to the 5th of May 2012.Patients were followed until they were discharged or died to see any change in condition, response to drugs, devices used, and medications. During the period of the study, there were 46 patients admitted to the ICU of whom 23 (50%) were males and 23 (50%) were females. The age range of patients was between 16 and 85 years. The mean of age of patients was 44.52 (SD±18.45) years. All patients underwent culture and sensitivity test as soon as they were admitted to the ICU, but out of 46 patients only 16 (34.78%) of them have culture and sensitivity tests results retrieved.The number of patients, in whom the antibiotics were prescribed or changed according to culture and sensitivity tests, was six patients only (13.04%). Ceftriaxone was the most commonly used antibiotic as an empiric treatment followed by ampicillin-cloxacillin combination and meropenem, while clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin were among the least used. The bacterial culture and sensitivity tests of different samples obtained from the patients showed that the most effective antibiotic was tobramycin (90%) followed by ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin (69.2%) for each and the least effective (bacterial resistance) was ceftriaxone (33.3%) and cefotaxime (28.5) among others. In conclusion, there is a critical need for reviewing the trend of antibiotic use in the ICUs depending more on lab. tests to identify the most effective drugs and to minimize the emergence of resistant infection.

Keywords: ICU, Antibiotic resistance, Culture and sensitivity tests.

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